Standard Western Tuning is called 12 Tone Equal Temperament which means that each semitone is exactly 100 cents apart. As an example on acoustic instruments this is rarely the case, for instance the Piano has slight variations at either end of the keys. Equal Temperament is a fairly recent Tuning system and there have been many tradition tunings which differ such as Mean tone or Pythagorean. Using a different tuning will produce different Harmonics in chords and can produce sound which is more harmonically pleasing, though can sound slightly out of tune as our brains are so used to Equal Temperament in the West.
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